NUTR 2500 Literature Search and Article Description
Order ID:89JHGSJE83839 Style:APA/MLA/Harvard/Chicago Pages:5-10
NUTR 2500 Literature Search and Article Description
NUTR 2500: Assignment 2A – Literature Search and Article Description
Student Name/Number: ______________________
Name of Ergogenic Aid: ___Caffeine_____________________________________________
Title: Caffeine and Exercise: What Next?
Citation (APA): Pickering and Grgic (2019)
This article states that caffeine is a widely used substance to enhance performances among both athletes and non-athletes. Caffeine is recognized to be a commonly used ergogenic aid. The effect of ingestion of caffeine is effective in improving muscle strength and power. The researcher searched across eight databases to find the effect of caffeine in the maximal muscle strength and power were measured and assessed using one repetition maximum strength test, vertical jumps, power output, aerobic endurance performance, as well as muscles endurance.
The study used meta- analysis to demonstrate the ergogenic effects of caffeine in exercise performance. The effects of caffeine in exercising as well-replicated, well- established, and appear to be consistent in a wide range exercise modality. The results indicate that caffeine is reliable in enhancing performance. Caffeine has effects on various physical performance tasks and it exerts acute cognitive benefits upon ingestion particularly on sleep deprived subjects. Caffeine demonstrates improvement in cognitive aspects such as moods, memory, and vigilance. The study revealed that Caffeine dose of 1 and 5mg/kg improved the skill performance among the elite rugby players in a sleep restriction program. Caffeine also enhances specific skill performance in non-sleep restricted programs. Athletes are also prone to mental fatigues which can affect their physical performance; hence caffeine engages the endurance performance and improve the cognitive functioning and performance sport activities.
However, the limitation of the results obtained is that it was dependent on the effects of caffeine in exercises that was done on laboratory conditions. It does not include the actual effect of caffeine in human being engaging in different types of sport activities. Thus, researchers need to test the actual practice in athletes in different sports such as rugby, volleyball, basketball, soccer and swimming.
Title: Effect of Caffeine Supplementation on Sports Performance Based on Differences between Sexes: A Systematic Review
Citation (APA): Mielgo-Ayuso, Marques-Jimenez, & Calleja-Gonzalex (2019)
Caffeine supplementation has shown a positive effect on sport performance. The article explores the gap of difference in the efficacy between men and women. The difference in sexes are evidence in regard to body composition, body sized, and hormonal functioning which leads to difference in performance outcome for a similar dose of caffeine intake between men and women. The difference in the effectiveness of the two genders is important in providing knowledge to sport coaches and practitioners especially for women athletes and use of caffeine as ergogenic aid. The study employed systematic review as well as Meta-Analysis where the effects of caffeine in the two sexes to identical placebo situations that is duration, dose and timing. The researchers carried out seven investigations among which four indicated that the efficacy of Caffeine supplement was higher in men than in women.
Systematic review indicated that there exist a difference in the effects of caffeine as an ergogenic supplement efficacy between men and women. The two sexes respond differently to same protocol of caffeine supplementation when the exercise was categorized as anaerobic or aerobic and include some kind of fatigues assessed. The result indicated that men are likely to experience an increase in ergogenic effects of caffeine in producing more power, higher speed and greater totals lifted weight with consumption of similar dose of caffeine. Both men and women athletes achieve significant benefits of caffeine supplements but the ergogenicity in men is greater for exercise activities than in women.
The limitation of the study is that there was scarcity of information as well as the use of small samples size in investigations. It is also difficult to use the results obtained to generally the results and recommendations on caffeine supplements. Thus, there si need for further studies on the effects of caffeine supplement in women population.
Title: Effect of Caffeine on Sport-Specific Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review
Citation (APA): Ganio, Klau, Casa, and Armstrong (2018)
Endurance athletes have high preference of taking caffeine because it is associated with ergogenic properties. Many researchers have focused their study on the time-to-exhaustion test that is subject having to exercise at a specific intensity to their volition exhaustions. the researcher identified that the use of time-to exhaustion is not applied for performance measurement because of the high degree of variability measures within and between subjects. The aim of the article was to review critically and objectively the studies conducted using time-trial endurance after the use of caffeine with more than five minutes performance.
The study revealed that 21 out of 33 studies of the effects of caffeine supplement measured the endurance performance using time-trial component. The past studies were objectively analyzed using physiotherapy evidence database scale. the results revealed that there is a mean of 9.3 out fo 10 which implied that there is a high quality of studies conducted in this areas. The studies showed that the results of caffeine efficacy result was between 3.2 to 2.3 percent . However, the difference in results was influenced by other factors such as ingestion time, subject habituation, and ingestion model. The researcher also learnt that caffeine ingestion is an effective ergogenic aid that facilitate endurance athletes especially when moderate quantities are taken during or before the exercise. In addition abstinence from caffeine for about 7 days before the use creates higher changes of ergogenic effect optimization.
The study is accompanied by some limitation whereby there is no evidence of other factors that may mediate increase improvement that is observed with ingestion of caffeine.