Psychology Evolution of a Science
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Psychology Evolution of a Science
“Study Group” Study Guide
Study Guide Must be Completed Before Attending the Study Group
Chapter 1: Psychology: Evolution of a Science
1 Origins/Definition of Psychology
- Psychology is the ____________ of behavior and ____________processes
- Parent disciplines are ____________and ____________
1) ____________: Knowledge gained through logic and reasoning
2) ____________: Knowledge directly from experience
1) The branch of ____________ concerned with the study of how organisms function
2) Contributed the ____________ ____________
2 Father of psychology was ____________ ____________
- Established first lab in 1879
- Studied ________________________
- Tichener developed the method of ____________
3 Psychology’s Roots
- From the Brain to the Mind: The French Connection
1) ____________ ____________ argued that the body and mind are fundamentally different things.
(a) ____________: The problem of how mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior.
2) ____________ ____________ argued that the body and mind are not different, but rather that the mind is what the brain does.
3) French surgeon Paul Broca found that damage to a specific part of the ____________ impaired a specific psychological function, such as ____________.
- Structuralism: From Physiology to Psychology
1) ____________ ____________, who started the first psychology laboratory, developed an approach to psychology known as ____________, or the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.
(a) Made use of ____________ ____________, or the time it takes to respond to a specific stimulus.
(b) Primary research method was ____________, which asks people to report on the contents of their subjective experience.
- James and the Functional Approach
1) ____________: The study of the purpose that mental processes serve; an approach developed by ____________ ____________.
(a) Influenced by the principle of ____________ ____________: The features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations; proposed by the naturalist ____________ ____________.
- The Real World: Improving Study Skills
- Rehearse: ____________rehearsal improves long-term learning better than rehearsal without this.
- Interpret: It is important to think ____________about what we want to remember and to engage in the act of ____________. The “Changing Minds” scenarios at the end of each chapter are useful for this!
- Test: It is better to ____________yourself on material than to simply look over your notes. The summary quizzes at the end of each section are useful for this!
- Hit the main points: Use a study guide (i.e., this one) to focus on ________________________, facts, and important people.
4 Current Perspectives
1) Major figure is ____________
2) Focus on ____________ drives and conflicts (especially from ____________)
3) Example: “____________ ____________” case study (Oedipus conflict), which is a good example of how ____________ affects the development of a theory—child became afraid of ____________.
1) Major figures are ____________, Watson, Skinner
2) Focus on effects of ____________ (rewards and ____________) on behavior
3) Example: “____________ ____________” experiment (Watson)—Child became afraid of white rat.
1) Major figures are Piaget and Simon
2) Focus on ____________, memory, and problem solving
3) Gained strength in 60’s
- Cognitive Neuroscience (“The Brain Meets the Mind: The Rise of Cognitive Neuroscience”)
1) Major figure is ____________, who developed the initial research area that would grow into behavioral neuroscience.
2) Technological breakthroughs in brain scanning techniques led to cognitive neuroscience, a field of study that attempts to understand the links between ____________ ____________ and ____________ ____________.
1) Major figure is Sperry
2) Focus on ____________ ____________ and underlying biological events (especially in the ____________)
3) Sperry was interested in right versus left sides of brain, or ____________ ̶ ____________ research
1) Major figure is Bowlby
2) Focus on evolutionary basis of human behavior (some behaviors may be pre-programmed because they help us ____________)
3) Example: the response of an adult to an infant crying
1) Major figure is ____________
2) Focus on impact of social or cultural factors on ____________
3) ____________ cultures value personal goals and achievement
4) ____________ cultures value being part of a group
- Humanistic (“Influence of Psychoanalysis and the Humanistic Response”)
1) Major figures are ____________ and ____________
2) An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the ____________ ____________ of human beings.
- Culture and Community: Analytic and Holistic Styles in Western and Eastern Cultures
- Western cultures tend to adopt an ____________style to processing information, focusing on an object or person without much attention to the ____________ ____________.
- Eastern cultures tend to adopt a ____________style, which emphasizes the ____________ ____________ an object or a person and the ____________ ____________.
5 Growing Role of Women and Minorities
- In 1950, women represented only 15% of all students receiving PhDs in psychology. In 2010, this proportion had grown to ___%. This proportion grew similarly for minorities, who went from representing only a small percentage to ___% in 2010.
- The first woman to serve as president of the APA was ________________________, who wrote four books and published over 100 articles.
- The first non-White president of the APA was ________________________, whose research determined that segregation of the races creates psychological harm, which contributed to the ruling of Brown v. ____________ ___ ____________.
6 What Psychologists Do: Research Careers
- Most people who major in psychology do not go on to become ____________.
- Those who dogo on to become psychologists typically finish college and enter ___________ school to obtain a PhD in one of many different areas of psychology.
- After receiving a PhD, students either pursue a postdoctoral fellowship, apply for a faculty position at a ____________or ____________, or apply for a research position in ____________ or ____________.
7 Subfields of Psychology (professions)
- Clinical psychologists ____________and ____________psychological disorders; work in private practice, hospitals, or medical schools.
1) Distinct from ____________, who have earned a medical degree (rather than a Master’s degree/PhD) and are allowed to prescribe medication (“The Variety of Career Paths”).
- Counseling psychologists help people with ________________________, such as with work or careers issues, or with crises such as divorce, loss of job, or death of a loved one.
- ____________Psychologists specialize in ___ ____________, teacher training, guidance counseling.
- ____________/____________: Work in business and industry.
- ____________/____________: work in university settings (e.g. Experimental Psychologists).
8 Key Themes
- Psychology is ____________– knowledge should be gained through observation
- Nature versus ____________= our genes versus how we are raised
- ____________= Biology (genes)
- ____________= Environment
- Psychology is theoretically diverse
- Many psychologists have an ____________approach (an approach composed of many diverse perspectives)
- ____________has multiple causes
- Focus on MTSU Research: Tutoring
- Effect of Tutoring on Undergraduate Performance
1) Attending a tutoring session improved students’ performance by as much as ___ ____________ ____________.
Chapter 2: Methods in Psychology
1) Empiricism and the Scientific Method
- a) Empiricism: The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through ____________.
- b) ________________________: a procedure for finding truth by using empirical evidence.
- c) ____________: A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon.
- d) Hypothesis: a ________________________made by a theory.
- e) ________________________: A set of rules and techniques for observation, necessary for gathering evidence properly.
2) Steps in a scientific investigation:
- a) Formulate a testable ____________(prediction)
- b) Select a ________________________and design study (i.e. experiment, case study, survey, correlational study)
- c) Collect ____________(make observations)
- d) Analyze data and draw ____________(use statistics)
- e) ____________findings (share findings with others at meetings or in a journal)
- a) ____________: the test consistently gives same score (repeatability)
- b) ____________: the extent that a test measures what it is supposed to measure
- c) Example: If I give you a calculus quiz to see how well you studied for psychology, it would probably be reliable and have test-retest reliability (you would probably perform poorly, and still not perform better the next time I randomly gave you a calculus quiz), but it would not be a ____________way to test your psychology skills.
- Culture and Community: Best Place to Fall on Your Face
- d) In studies that observed helping behaviors in naturalistic settings (i.e., helping the blind/ injured across the street, picking up a dropped pen), people in Rio de Janeiro helped ___% of the time, while people from New York City helped ___% of the time.
4) Demand Characteristics
- a) Definition: Those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think someone else ____________or ____________.
- i) Ways to avoid demand characteristics:
(a) ____________ ____________: Is a technique of gathering scientific information (i.e., a research method) by unobtrusively observing people in their natural habitats.
(b) Allow participants to respond privately or ____________.
(c) Measure behaviors that cannot be easily ____________.
(d) Keep people who are being observed from knowing the true purpose of the observation (i.e., keep them “____________”).
5) Observer Bias
- a) Expectations can influence our ____________and expectations can influence ____________, typically in line with our research hypotheses.
- b) A way to avoid this is the ____________observation, which is an observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed.
6) Research Methods
- a) Experiments
- i) Use ____________(manipulated) and ____________(measured) variables
- ii) Study can have ____________variables: variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to affect the dependent variable and should be controlled
iii) ____________ ____________ ensures that each person has an equal chance of being in any group
- iv) ____________groups are groups that do NOT receive the special treatment that the experimental groups receive
- b) Correlations
- i) ____________between variables are identified (researcher does not ____________variables or ____________ assign people)
- ii) Correlations can be positive (as one goes up, the other __________) or negative (as one goes up, the other __________).
iii) Cannot make a ____________ and ____________ statement
- c) Case Study (“Representative People”)
- i) Definition: a procedure for gathering scientific information by studying a ________________________.
- The Real World: Oddsly Enough
- d) According to a Gallup survey, ___% of college graduates believe in extrasensory perception (ESP).
- e) However, statistics helps us understand that ____________are actually very common (and to be expected!), especially in considering large samples.
- i) For example: In a group of ___or more people, you are more likely than not to have at least two people who share the same birthday.
7) Thinking Critically about Evidence
- a) We See What We Expect to See
- i) People tend to look for evidence that confirms their ____________(such as in the Hannah study), and tend to stop looking when they find it.
- ii) Therefore, the first step in critical thinking is to ____________your own conclusions and to invite ____________from colleagues.
- b) We Consider What We See and Ignore What We Don’t
- i) In the “Quizmaster” study, observers perceived the ____________as more knowledgeable than the ____________.
- ii) Therefore, the second step in critical thinking is considering what you ________________________(such as considering participants in the Quizmaster study in opposite roles).
- c) The Skeptical Stance
- i) Science may not be perfect, but it is the best way to learn about the world, as it actively seeks to discover and remedy human ____________.
- ii) Science is like a ____________as anyone and everyone can take part in it.
- a) ____________statistics are statistical methods used to summarize data in a brief and meaningful form
- i) ____________: average
- ii) Mode: ____________frequently occurring score
iii) ____________: middle score when all scores are placed in order
9) Inferential statistics are used to determine what ____________ you can draw from your data (are differences most likely real or due to ____________)
10) Research Ethics
- a) Must minimize ____________or ____________to participants (“Respecting People”)
- i) Research must be approved by ____________________________________ (IRB).
- ii) ________________________: Must be given before participation, after description of the research and that the research is voluntary.
iii) Freedom from coercion: Can’t coerce participants (e.g., physical, psychological, or ____________ coercion).
- iv) Risk-benefit analysis: Smallrisks must be outweighed by ________________________ (large risks cannot even be asked).
- v) ____________: Must explain research at the end of the study, including any ____________
- vi) ____________: Psychologists may only use ____________when it is justified and when alternative procedures are not feasible.
vii) Confidentiality: Psychologists are obligated to keep ____________ and ____________ information obtained during a study confidential.
- b) Research with animals (“Respecting Animals”)
- i) Also needs to be approved by IRB.
- ii) Animals are protected by various ____________and ____________.
iii) Constitute only a ____________ percentage of studies.
- iv) Require ____________standards of care and treatment.
(a) Must be supervised by psychologists experienced in the care of ____________ ____________.
(b) Must make reasonable efforts to minimize the discomfort, infection, illness, and ____________ of animals.
(c) May subject animals to pain, stress, or privation only when alternative procedure is ____________ and when ____________.
(d) Must perform surgical procedures under appropriate ____________.
- c) Respecting Truth
- i) Psychologists are obligated to report truthfully what they did and found. They can’t ____________results, ____________results, or mislead by ____________.
- ii) Psychologists are obligated to share their credit by including ___–____________and by mentioning other scientists who have done related work.
iii) Psychologists are obligated to share their ____________.
- Other Voices: Is Psychology a Science?
- d) Psychology is a science whose findings have had beneficial effects on ____________.
- e) Much of psychology is based on carefully controlled ____________using ____________
Chapter 3: Neuroscience and Behavior
1 Parts of Neurons and Their Functions
- Neurons: cells in the nervous system that ____________, ____________, and ____________information
- ____________: Receive information from other cells
- Cell Body: responsible for ________________________
- ____________: transmits information from cell body to the next cell
- Myelin Sheath: helps ____________the axon and transmit information ____________
- ____________: contain the neurotransmitters
- ____________: space between terminal buttons and next dendrite
2 How Neurons Communicate
- 1. ____________and storage
- 2. Release of ____________
- 3. Binding of neurotransmitters to receiving ____________
- 4. ____________of or removal of neurotransmitters
- 5. ____________of neurotransmitters (recycling)
3 Electric Signaling: Conducting Information within a Neuron
- Resting potential: The difference in ________________________ between the inside and outside of a neuron’s cell membrane.
- Action potential: An electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron’s ____________to a ____________.
1) Occurs when the electric shock reaches a certain level, or ____________.
2) The action potential is “____ ____ ____”
3) ____________ ____________: the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.
4) ____________ ____________: covers the axon in clumps with little break points, facilitating the conduction of the action potential.
- ____________(ACH): important in muscle movement and memory; low levels cause ____________
- Dopamine: control of voluntary movement, is important for beginning movement; low levels cause ____________disease; high levels cause ____________
- Serotonin: regulation of ____________, ____________, and ____________
- Norepinephrine: responsible for physiological arousal and filtering out distractions; low levels of this and ____________cause depression
- Glutamate (“Types and Functions of Neurotransmitters”): The major ____________neurotransmitter in the brain, which ____________ the transmission of information between neurons.
- Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA): ____________neural activity; malfunctions of GABA activity contribute to severe anxiety, Huntington’s disease, and epilepsy
- ____________:body’s natural pain killer, linked to pain control and pleasure
5 How Drugs Affect Synaptic Transmission
- Antidepressants: prevent ____________of dopamine, norepinephrine, and/or ____________
- GABA: affected by Valium and Xanax to reduce neural activity.
6 How Drugs Mimic Neurotransmitters
- Having an imbalance of neurotransmitters (too much or too little) can dramatically affect behavior.
1) ____________: Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter.
2) Antagonists: Drugs that ____________ the function of a neurotransmitter.
7 Peripheral Nervous Systems
- ____________: nerves that connect to voluntary muscles and sensory receptors
- ____________: nerves that connect to internal organs, glands, and involuntary muscles; controls ____________functions (ex. Heart rate)
1) ____________: part of autonomic that is ____________ or flight response
2) ____________: part of autonomic that returns body to relaxed state
8 The Central Nervous System
- Is composed of the brain and the ________________________. For some basic behaviors, the ____________ ____________ doesn’t need input from the brain at all.
1) ____________ ____________: simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions.
9 Parts of the Brain
- Brain stem: has the ____________, which controls basic functions (heartbeat, blood pressure, etc.)
1) ________–________ ________: right hemisphere controls left side of body
- ____________: muscular control, coordination, voluntary movement
- ________________________ ____________: involved in arousal and attention, as well as the sleep and wake cycle
- ____________: regulation of ____________and drinking, autonomic nervous system, sexual behavior, “pleasure center”, pituitary gland
- Thalamus: sensory switchboard (sends sensory information to the appropriate regions of the brain)
- ____________: emotion center; involved in emotion control and formation of emotion memories
- Hippocampus: formation of ____________
- Cerebral cortex: ________________________are fibers that connect the two hemispheres; the cortex has four lobes
10 Subcortical Structures
- Pituitary gland: the “________________________” of the body’s hormone-producing system, which releases ____________ that direct the functions of many other glands in the body; located below the hypothalamus.
11 Lobes of the Brain
- Occipital: processes ____________information, located in the back of the brain
- Temporal: processes ____________information, located on the sides by temples and ears
- ____________: processes sense of touch
- ____________: primary motor cortex; also important for planning and decision making; last part of brain to be fully developed
12 The Cerebral Cortex
- Mirror neurons: active when an animal performs a ____________, such as reaching for or manipulating an object, and they are also activated when another animal ____________the first animal as it performs the same behavior.
13 Hemispheric Functions
- ____________hemisphere: speech, language, writing, calculation, and logic
- ____________hemisphere: facial recognition, perception of spatial relationships, artistic abilities, and recognition of facial expressions of emotions
14 Speech and Language (Aphasias)
- Broca’s area: controls ________________________
- Wernicke’s area: controls ____________
- ____________: a disturbance in the comprehension or production of speech
- ____________aphasia: slow, laborious, non-fluent speech; the speech has meaning; can comprehend speech better than speak
- ____________aphasia: poor speech comprehension, can produce speech but it is meaningless
15 Brain Plasticity
- Plasticity: The ability of sensory cortices to ____________to ____________ in sensory inputs.
1) e.g., the neurons associated with a cut off finger becoming responsive to stimulation from ____________ fingers, or concert pianists having highly developed cortical areas for finger control.
16 Prenatal Development of the Central Nervous System
- The ________________________ is the first major bodily system to take form in an embryo.
- By the ________________________, the three basic levels of the brain are visible.
- During the ________________________ and later, the forebrain expands considerably to form the cerebral hemispheres.
17 Evolutionary Development of the Central Nervous System
- A major evolutionary split occurred between ____________and ____________.
- In all vertebrates, the central nervous system is organized into a ____________.
- The ____________underwent further evolutionary advances in vertebrates, reaching its peak in humans, allowing for such remarkable abilities as self-awareness, language use, abstract reasoning, etc.
18 Genes and Epigenetics
- What are Genes?
1) Gene: the major unit of ____________ ____________.
2) ____________: Strands of DNA wound around each other in a double-helix configuration.
3) Monozygotic twins (also known as “____________ ____________”) share ____% of their genes with each other, while dizygotic twins (also known as “____________ ____________”) share ____% of their genes with each other.
- A Role for Epigenetics
1) Epigenetics: ____________ influences that determine whether or not genes are ____________, or the degree to which they are ____________, without altering the basic DNA sequences that constitute the genes themselves.
- Hot Science: Epigenetics and the Persisting Effects of Early Experiences
- Rat pups of ____________mothers are much less fearful, have lower levels of stressed-related hormones, and higher levels of serotonin as adults when placed in stressful situations.
- Researchers found that half of a sample of 24 men who committed suicide had been abused as children and showed evidence of epigenetic changes similar to the adult rat pups of ____________mothers.
19 Split-Brain Research
- Corpus ____________is sometimes cut to stop seizures from moving from one side of the brain to another; makes it so hemispheres cannot communicate
- ____________hemisphere: controls left side of body (no language)
- ____________hemisphere: controls right side of body; has language
- Right visual field is processed by the ____________side of the brain (if you look at a dot, information that is to the right of the dot) and vice versa
20 When two hemispheres cannot communicate…
- Information about objects seen in the left visual field goes to the ____________hemisphere, which does not have language (person can find the object with their ____________hand)
- Information in right visual field goes to ____________hemisphere which can ____________identify the object.
21 Brain Imaging
- PET (positron emission tomography): uses a ________________________that can be injected; requires exposure to low levels of radioactivity; is a method for analyzing biochemical ____________ in the brain
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): uses a ________________________and measures radiofrequency waves; follows rapid changes, good anatomical details; uses a magnetic field to show a high contrast picture of the organ.
22 Studying the Brain’s Electrical Activity
- EEG (electroencephalograph): Electrodes are placed on the outside of the head and provide a visual record of the ________________________.
23 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
- TMS (Transcranial magnetic stimulation): delivers a magnetic pulse that passes through the skull and deactivates ____________in the cerebral cortex for a short period. Researchers can direct TMS pulses to a particular brain region and then measure temporary changes in the way a person moves, sees, thinks, remembers, speaks, or feels.
- Other Voices: Neuromyths
- There are many myths concerning neuroscience, perhaps the most famous of which that “we only use 10% of our brain”.
- Whenever you hear bold claims, it is important to use critical thinking and ask (for starters):
1) What’s the ____________ for the claim?
2) Are there specific studies published in ____________ ̶ ____________ journals to provide evidence in support of the claim?
3) What kind of ____________ was used; was it large enough to support a clear conclusion?
4) Has the finding been ____________?
Psychology Evolution of a Science
The background and significance of the problem and a clear statement of the research purpose is provided. The search history is mentioned.
The background and significance of the problem and a clear statement of the research purpose is provided. The search history is mentioned.
Content is well-organized with headings for each slide and bulleted lists to group related material as needed. Use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. to enhance readability and presentation content is excellent. Length requirements of 10 slides/pages or less is met.
More depth/detail for the background and significance is needed, or the research detail is not clear. No search history information is provided.
Review of relevant theoretical literature is evident, but there is little integration of studies into concepts related to problem. Review is partially focused and organized. Supporting and opposing research are included. Summary of information presented is included. Conclusion may not contain a biblical integration.
Content is somewhat organized, but no structure is apparent. The use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. is occasionally detracting to the presentation content. Length requirements may not be met.
The background and/or significance are missing. No search history information is provided.
Review of relevant theoretical literature is evident, but there is no integration of studies into concepts related to problem. Review is partially focused and organized. Supporting and opposing research are not included in the summary of information presented. Conclusion does not contain a biblical integration.
There is no clear or logical organizational structure. No logical sequence is apparent. The use of font, color, graphics, effects etc. is often detracting to the presentation content. Length requirements may not be met
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